DEFINITION OF KWANZAA Kwanzaa is a unique African American celebration with focus on the traditional African values of family, community responsibility, commerce, and self-improvement. Kwanzaa is neither political nor religious and despite some misconceptions, is not a substitute for Christmas. It is simply a time of reaffirming African-American people, their ancestors and culture. Kwanzaa, which means "first fruits of the harvest" in the African language Kiswahili, has gained tremendous acceptance. Since its founding in 1966 by Dr. Maulana Karenga, Kwanzaa has come to be observed by more than13 million people worldwide, as reported by the New York Times. Celebrated from December 26th to January 1st, it is based on Nguzo Saba (seven guiding principles), one for each day of the observance:

CELEBRATING KWANZAA As it is always better to get an early start, I suggest that you begin the first week in December by making a check list for the following items: A Kinara (candle holder); Mkeka (placemat preferably made of straw); Mazao (crops, i.e., fruits and vegetables);Vibunzi (ears of corn to reflect the number of children in the household);Kikombe cha umoja (communal unity cup); Mishumaa saba (sevencandles, one black, three red, and three green); and Zwaidi (giftsthat are enriching).

It is important that the Kinara not be confused with the menorah.The Kinara holds seven candles to reflect the seven principles which are the foundation of Kwanzaa, while the menorah is a Jewish religious symbol that holds eight candles. If you don't have a Kinara and don't know where to get one, it is suggested that you use "kuumba" (creativity) and make one. A 2x4 or a piece of driftwood will do just fine, and screw-in candle holders can be purchased in most hardware stores. The Mkeka (place mat) shouldn't present a problem. While straw is suggested because it is traditional, cloth makes an adequate substitute. If cloth is used, one with an African print is preferred. The other symbols are easy to come by and warrant no further discussion other than to caution against placing the Mazao (crops)in a cornucopia which is Western. A plain straw basket or a bowl will dojust fine. One last note, even households with no children should place anear of corn on the place mat to symbolize the African concept of socialparenthood. All seven symbols are creatively placed on top of the place mat,i.e., the symbols should be attractively arranged as they form the Kwanzaacenterpiece. Even households with no children should place an ear of cornon the place mat to symbolize the African concept of social parenthood.

DECORATING THE HOME The Kinara along with the othersymbols of Kwanzaa should dominate the room, which should be given an Africanmotif. This is easily achieved and shouldn't result in too much expense.The colors of Kwanzaa are black, red and green. This should be kept in mindwhen decorating the home. Black, red and green streamers, balloons, cloth,flowers, and African prints can be hung tastefully around the room. Originalart and sculpture may be displayed as well.

GIFTS Kuumba (creativity) is greatly encouraged. Not only isKuumba one of the seven principles, it also brings a sense of personalsatisfaction and puts one squarely into the spirit of Kwanzaa.  Therefore,those symbols that can be made, should be made.   The giving ofgifts during Kwanzaa should be affordable and of an educational or artisticnature.  Gifts are usually exchanged between parents and children andtraditionally given on January 1st, the last day of Kwanzaa.  However,gift giving during Kwanzaa may occur at any time.

THE KWANZAA FEAST OR KARAMU   The Kwanzaa Karumu is traditionally held on December 31st (participants celebrating New Year's Eve, should plan their Karamu early in the evening).  It is a very special event as it is the one Kwanzaa event that brings us closer to our African roots.  The Karamu is a communal and cooperative effort.  Ceremonies and cultural expressions are highly encouraged.  It is important to decorate the place where the Karamu will be held, (e.g., home, communitycenter, church) in an African motif that utilizes black, red, and green color scheme.  A large Kwanzaa setting should dominate the room where the karamu will take place.  A large Mkeka should be placed in the centerof the floor where the food should be placed creatively and made accessible to all for self-service.  Prior to and during the feast, an informative and entertaining program should be presented.  Traditionally, the program involved welcoming, remembering, reassessment, recommitment and rejoicing, concluded by a farewell statement and a call for greater unity.

     Below is a suggested format for the Karamu program, from a model by Dr. Karenga.

       Kukaribisha (Welcoming)
           Introductory Remarks and Recognitionof Distinguished Guests and All Elders.
        Cultural Expression (Songs, Music, Group Dancing,Poetry, Performances, Unity Circles)

     Kukumbuka (Remembering)  
        Reflections of a Man, Woman and Child.
        Cultural Expression

     Kuchunguza Tena Na Kutoa Ahadi Tena (Reassessmentand Recommitment)
        Introduction of Distinguished Guest Lecturer and Short Talk.

     Kushangilla (Rejoicing)
         Tamshi la Tambiko (Libation Statement)
It is tradition to pour libation in remembrance
of the ancestors on all special occasions.
 Kwanzaa, is such an occasion, as it provides
us an opportunity to reflect on our African past
and American present. Water is suggested as it
holds the essence of life and should be placed
in a communal cup and poured in the direction
of the four winds, north, south, east, and west.
It should then be passed among  family           members  
and guests who may either sip from
the cup or make a sipping gesture

For The Motherland cradle of civilization.
For the ancestors and their indomitable spirit
For the elders from whom we can learn much.
For our youth who represent the promise for               tomorrow.
For our people the original people.
For our struggle and in remembrance of those who
 have struggled on our behalf.
For Umoja the principle of unity which should guide
 us in all that we do.
For the creator who provides all things great and small.

.    Kikombe cha Umoja(Unity Cup)
    Kutoa Majina (Calling Names of FamilyAncestors and Black Heroes)
     Ngoma (Drums)
     Karamu (Feast)
     Cultural Expression

Tamshi la Tutaonana (The Farewell Statement)